The ultimate guide to Satthwa’s argan oil shampoo

Best Sulfate Free Shampoo in India

We has recently launched our Argan Oil Shampoo. This is the first shampoo from our brand. While mostly shampoos are primarily used for getting rid of the built up oil and dirt from your hair, a few shampoos are specially formulated to tackle issues such as dryness, damage, dandruff, and hair fall. We has just brought that shampoo to you. Our brand, known for our 100% Natural products, our highly popular premium hair oil and essential oils. If you haven’t tried them yet, then we highly recommend you to!

Why Argan Oil?

There’s a reason why we has chosen Argan Oil as it’s first shampoo’s main and standout ingredient. The shampoo is 100% pure. There are many shampoos available in the market that advertise themselves as natural and contain essential oils. Most popularly, you’ll find natural shampoos with coconut or peppermint or lavender oil, but we chose Argan oil because it’s the most effective in maintaining the health of your hair, from both the inside and the outside.

Argan Oil, extracted from the Argan trees of Morocco, has widely been popular for treating rashes and for skin/hair care. What is great about Argan Oil is that it is rich in Vitamin A, E and C and has high amount of fatty acids. These components increase the blood circulation and cause a boost in the cell formation. As new cells are formed and the dead ones are removed, your hair remains extremely healthy.

Some benefits of Argan Oil for hair

Argan Oil is abundantly rich in Vitamin E, hence helps in moisturising your hair and your scalp.

– It absorbs quickly and does not leave your hair oily.

– It is gently, hence completely safe to use on children.

– It is suitable for any hair type.

Containing a wealth of vitamins and minerals, Argan oil is a great cleanser for your hair. It removes excess oil and dirt, as well as any build up and dandruff.

– It treats hair loss.

– It has anti-inflammatory properties; does not cause any kind of scalp irritation or redness.

The natural Argan oil nutrients help detangle, smooth and reduce tension in rough or frizzy hair making it a favorite of women who struggle with dry and rough hair.

– It’s a natural hair conditioner.

– It has no harmful effects on colour treated hair.

– It is completely organic, natural, devoid of chemicals and hence offers long term benefits.

Presence of vitamin E also helps in hair growth. Vitamin E increases the blood circulation. With an increase in blood circulation, more nutrients reach your scalp thus promoting the faster growth of healthy and string hair.

– It gives your hair a shinier, glowing look.

What makes Satthwa’s Argan Oil Shampoo the perfect package for your hair

While we’ve chosen Argan oil as our main ingredient, the shampoo is a blend of many other natural and organic ingredients. All ingredients are 100% pure and extremely beneficial for your hair. The reason why this shampoo is a must have product in your haircare and will be your hair’s best friend is because of it’s ingredients. So lets break down all the magical ingredients.

– Argan Oil
– Jojoba Oil
– Almond Oil
– Avocado Oil
– Coconut Oil
– Botanical Keratin
– Lauryl Glucoside
– Coco Glucoside
– Decyl Glucoside
– Cocamidopropyl Betaine
– Glycerine
– Aloevera Gel
– Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis (Hibiscus Oil)
– Azadirachta Indica (Neem Extract)
– Polyquart-10
– Phenoxyethenol
– Caprylyl glycol
– Sodium phytate
– Xanthin Gum
– Aqua and Natural fragrance

All of these ingredients are extremely beneficial for any hair type with no side-effects. If you want to know how they individually benefit our hair, then check out our other blog which gives a deep insight into the ingredients.
How to use

Rinse hair thoroughly. Take a sufficient amount of shampoo and massage into your scalp. A satisfactory amount of lather will be formed. In case, it’s not, then just a little bit more of the shampoo. After massaging, leave it on your hair and scalp for about 2 minutes and then rinse.

Satthwa’s Argan Oil shampoo acts as a natural conditioner too, so there’s no need to apply a separate conditioner.

For best hair results, use Satthwa’s Premium hair oil prior to shampooing. And shampoo at least 3-4 times a week.

Why go for Satthwa

We started with the introduction of the Satthwa Premium Hair Oil, and since then the hair oil has benefited thousands of men & women and the success of which has paved the way to launching other natural beauty products. At Satthwa we believe in “pure to the core” and all our products are made from Grade A pure ingredients without the use of harmful chemicals and parabens. We bring out products which are not just for aesthetics but also poses the ability to make a real difference in our lives.

Our Argan Oil shampoo is a perfect blend of natural oils. A blend that you won’t find in any other natural shampoo. It is completely sulfate/paraben free. Using this shampoo as the basis of your haircare routine will give you the best hair experience. Yes, your hair is going to thank you later!

Pros – Argan Oil Shampoo

– Sulfate free and cruelty-free
– Paraben free
– Thickens and moisturizes hair
– Designed with all-natural, organic ingredients
– Great anti-hair loss shampoo
– Promotes healthy hair growth
– Great for frizzy or course hair
– Nourishes scalp
– Safe for color-treated hair and hair of all types
– Provides relief from itchy, dry or irritated scalp
– Designed for both men and women
– Eco-friendly
– Cost effective product
– Easily available online

Cons – Argan Oil Shampoo

Hair might feel dry in the first few washes, since the action of the shampoo is removing all dirt and sulfates already present in your scalp.

Cost and Availability

The standard 200ml tube costs Rs.499
The product is readily available on online platforms – Flipkart & Amazon

Peppermint oil, a natural minoxidil alternative?

Minoxidil alternative… really?

We explored some of the benefits of peppermint essential oil in our previous article. In addition to all those benefits, PEO (peppermint essential oil) is a major problem-solver to all your hair growth problems, which is the focus of this article.

Uses and benefits for hair

• Peppermint essential oil is used in shampoos, skin creams, and other hair care products as it is known for it’s minty fragrance.
• Peppermint oil can also be used by adding it to any carrier oil, given its cooling effect, for relaxation.
• Peppermint essential oil, when applied to the hair, helps with dryness, itching, or other scalp problems.
• Naturally conditions your hair.
• It helps in eliminating dandruff and fight lice, given its antiseptic and antimicrobial properties.
• It stimulates hair growth and prevents thinning of hair. It’s a tested fact that Peppermint Essential Oil is the best one to use if you are suffering from severe hair loss. Let’s find out what makes it the most powerful.

Peppermint essential oil for hair regrowth

The major cause for hair loss is Iron deficiency. When you don’t have enough iron, your body can’t produce the hemoglobin in your blood. And since hemoglobin carries oxygen for the growth and repair of cells in your body, including the cells that stimulate hair growth, your hair starts shedding. PEO stimulates blood circulation. When blood is flowing, the nutrients from your body can feed your hair follicles more effectively. And as a result, you hair regrows.

Is Peppermint essential oil the best Minoxidil alternative?

Before going to the the details, let us know a little about Minoxidil. Minoxidil is known to be a popular FDA-approved (food and drug administration USA) drug used in hair loss treatments. It belongs to a class of drugs known as vasodilators. It comes as a topical lotion or foam. The mechanism of how Minoxidil works is not fully understood yet, several studies suggest that Minoxidil causes hyper polarisation of the cell membranes. That is, it widens the blood vessels that allow more oxygen and nutrients to the hair follicles. As discussed earlier, this stimulates growth in hair cells. And as a result hair can regrow. So why should you use PEO and avoid Minoxidil

• According to a scientific study of the effects of PEO and Minoxidil on hair growth, conducted on male mice by Korean researchers in 2014, they concluded that PEO effectively stimulated hair growth in an animal model via several mechanisms and thus could be used as a therapeutic or preventive alternative medicine for hair loss in humans.

The conclusion came after they applied Minoxidil and PEO on two separate groups of mice for four weeks. As observed, hair growth was more prominent and rapid in the PEO group as compared to the Minoxidil group. Clearly, PEO was dominant.

minoxidil alternative

• Minoxidil is widely effective for treating hair loss caused by pattern baldness (a condition where your hair follicles get smaller and smaller over time. So, when the strands of your hair fall out, they’re not replaced with normal new hair, but instead by thinner, finer strands of hair) in males and females and not by any other condition. While PEO is an essential oil with no side effects that can treat hair loss caused by any condition.
• As a tested fact, Some women may experience facial hair growth when they use minoxidil. This might happen to men or women as side effect when highly concentrated minoxidil is used. While there is no such risk when using PEO.
• The growth is slow when using Minoxidil. Hair loss may seem to stop early, but growth can take around 8-9 months. While PEO works rapidly. You will observe better results in just a month.
• Minoxidil can cause irritation, flaking, and redness on your skin. While you can apply Peppermint essential oil anywhere on your skin for pain relief or relaxation.
• Minoxidil might not be easily available in the pharmacy stores. While PEO is easily accessible. You can make an easy purchase from any online store. It is also cheaper than Minoxidil.
• One of the major drawbacks of using Minoxidil is that many users have reported rapid hair loss once they stopped using minoxidil. This is not the case with PEO

Now that it is clear that peppermint oil can claim to be minoxidil alternative, especially without any negative effects. Let us show you, how you can make the hair growth oil using Peppermint and Jojoba Oil. Note: We are using jojoba oil because it is the closest to natural oil produced by us and it penetrates easily into the skin.. thereby making it one of the best carrier oil.

How to make Peppermint regrowth hair oil

• Add 7-10 drops of peppermint oil (Buy Peppermint oil) to one tablespoon of Jojoba oil (Buy Jojoba oil). This would be about 3-4% mix. Make sure that you thoroughly mix both oils.
• Apply the oil on your scalp and massage it with your fingers. If the tingling is too intense, add more of your carrier oil.
• You can leave the mix in your hair for about 1 hour or keep it overnight as well. Make sure to shampoo it out thoroughly. Apply 4-5 times a week for maximum effectiveness.

Safety Issues

• Don’t apply on children below the age of 3, given their extremely sensitive skin.
• Pregnant women should not apply it excessively.

Watch our video in Hindi on how you can make this regrowth hair oil using Jojoba and Peppermint oil.

Peppermint essential oil

Peppermint Essential Oil

In today’s age, People are suffering from many health issues. While the primary reason for a poor mental health is stress, physical health issues arise from the highly polluted air and the depleting quality of our environment.

The major influence of a polluting environment is on our body – our skin. Particularly our face and hair since they remain unprotected and are under the direct sunlight. We all know that it’s very important to look & feel healthy. But are we really using the right remedies? Well, if you want to be in a good kilter, continue reading this article because we have brought to you an amazing solution.

It’s Peppermint Essential Oil. Yes, it might not be the first time that you’ve heard it. But in this article, we’ll be talking in detail about how Peppermint Essential Oil is made, it’s benefits and how it is one of the most effective essential oil to solve your hair, skin and other problems.

What is Peppermint

Peppermint belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae) and is an aromatic plant, created from the blending of water mint and spearmint. Not to be confused with other mint plants, peppermint has square stems, smooth dark green leaves and dull oblong clusters of slightly pinkish lavender flowers. It is mostly cultivated in Europe, Asia and North America.

Uses of Peppermint plant

• Fresh leaves are used as herbs in cooking.
• Dried flowers add flavor to candy, desserts, beverages, salads, and other foods.
• The leaf powder is also used in salads and adds flavor to various drinks including purified water.
• Peppermint capsules are used for many health benefits.

So, as we can understand, we can use Peppermint leaves and it’s flowers. But the most important form of it is it’s natural distilled oil, also known as peppermint oil.

What is Peppermint Essential Oil

The Peppermint essential oil is a concentrated oil that is extracted from the peppermint plant (Mentha Piperita) by steam distillation. Fresh or partly dried plant is used to extract the oil before it starts to flower. The oil has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, insecticidal, antispasmodic, and carminative properties. It also has a very cooling effect (just like mints) due to a highly dominant presence of menthol. And that is what makes it the most powerful!

Uses and Benefits of Peppermint Essential Oil

• The oil is used as a pain reliever.
• It is used as a mosquito repellent.
• It is used to make natural toothpaste.
• It is used in food items to help recover from many health issues like indigestion, respiratory issues like sinus, unhealthy liver and severe headaches.
• It is also used in aroma therapy.
• The oil is also an energiser. The smell of the oil will pump you up with energy.
• Excellent for hair growth as it increase the local blood circulation on application.

Caution: Since peppermint is very popular and is a expensive oil, there are many who sell cornmint as peppermint as the smell is virtually indistinguishable. Cornmint is very high on menthol and is grown in India and the oil which is extracted from cormint is often sold as peppermint. However the therapeutic value of cormint is very low as compared to peppermint oil.

Watch our video on the benefits of peppermint essential oil

Cut crease eyeshadow tutorial!

Cut Crease Eyeshadow Tutorial

Let our professional makeup artist Ocean Thakur show us how easy it is to so a Cut Crease Eyeshadow Makeup with glitter and also how you can easily remove the makeup using just Jojoba oil.

Makeup Products Used For This Tutorial

– Mac Studio Fix Concealer in Shade NC20
– Inglot Gel Liner in No.77
– Touch inSOL Shimmer Stick in Gold
– Brown Pencil Liner
– Morphe Jaclyn Hill Palette

Lip Colour – Bumble by Colourpop

Watch the video tutorial below. Please do subscribe to our youtube channel as we keep uploading awesome videos!

Mother Nature wants you to be beautiful; Argan oil is the astonishing proof

Making Argan Oil

Most of the beauty products we come across in daily life are the outcomes of rigorous process governed and evolved through modern techniques involving a mixture of various ingredients. Sometimes, the range of products which has arisen due to acute competition among manufacturers lowers our faith on the manmade cosmetics. Oftentimes, many of us have also stumbled upon a thought of going against the nature by using beauty products to improve upon our natural looks.

But what if I say to you that Mother Nature herself wants you to look beautiful and has produced phenomenal natural products which works directly on improving your overall beauty and charisma. One such proof is the existence of Argan Oil, which has been in usage in Morocco from the past three thousand years. If you are a beauty enthusiast, then you might have heard of it. But if you haven’t, then it’s time to come out of your closet and give it a try.

There is no nonsense in the prevalent aphorism in the Moroccan community that it is called liquid gold, some kind of beauty elixir. The fact that it is used as a pure product enhances our trust that nature is no gamer when our health is concerned and has been hiding herbs in plain sight from millennia, it is only that we have lost much of ancient rich knowledge concerning medicinal herbs. Although, In the absence of much historical knowledge I appreciate the usage of manmade cosmetics which has come into being after a thorough research and working proof and I too use many such products.

But if you come upon a natural gift having trusted upon by people from millennia, then you should not ignore its potential if you are concerned being about your beauty and wellbeing. Having lots of therapeutic and skin quality enhancing properties in a single herb, it is rightful to say that this oil is one of the treasure Mother Nature made for us. In order to avoid any risk of taking it as exaggeration, Here is all you need to know about the magical beautifying properties of Moroccan Argan Oil.

Origin and Early Acclamation

The Argan tree has been believed to have originated in a village called Argana, which lies in the north east of the Moroccan city of Agadir. The Argan tree grows in abundance in the south-western region of Morocco, where these trees laden with fleshy fruits are the favourite target of native goats. The goats eat the fruit, leaving behind a hard nut from which kernels are extracted which are the source of the beauty serum Argan Oil.

Moroccan people have been using Argan oil as a skin moisturizer and hair conditioner since ancient times. Phoenicians in as early as 1550 B.C. have recorded the use of Argan Oil by locals for healing and beautifying their bodies. In 1510 AD, African explorer named Leo Africanus came across Argan Oil while traveling across Morocco. From there, the oil entered Europe where only the rich and privileged class had access to the rare, expensive and exotic oil.

Today, even after 3,500 years, Berber women of Southern Morocco are glorious for their exotic beauty. And their secret is applying this precious golden hued oil regularly to their faces, hair, nails and body.

Manufacturing Process

The nutcrackers: From olden times, Berber community’s women have been pelting stones together to crack the Argan nut’s outer shell which is considered to be 16 times harder than a hazelnut.

The process begins by extracting Argan nut from Argan tree and mostly it is done by a traditional method with the help of goats. Goats are let free to climb over the tree on which goats would scamper up branches to eat the Argan fruit and expelling the nuts. After the nuts are retrieved, shell-cracking began with a technique which is mastered over time and passed down to subsequent generations. In order to produce oil, laborious process of grinding and pressing the nuts is required. 1 liter of oil is extracted from only 4 kilograms of the kernel which is found in approximately 120 kilograms of fruit.

As argan oil got famous internationally, methods of production has changed. Big manufacturers are preferring to directly pick the fruit from the tree and subsequent process of grinding and pressing is done through the machines.

Argan oil is one of the rarest and expensive oils in the world. The price is high because of difficult and time consuming manufacturing process. In the market, Argan Oil is prone to be faked real and dilution which is sold at a cheaper rate to lure consumers. So, one should take caution and check its authenticity before purchasing.

Benefits of Argan Oil to give you all the reasons to use it

Argan oil is very rich with lots of vitamin A, vitamin E, antioxidants, omega-6 fatty acids and linoleic acid which gives it natural therapeutic properties. It is no less than a panacea for hair and skin.

1) Nurture’s Good Skin: It is a great moisturiser for skin. It helps to keep the oil production in check by balancing your sebum levels. It can hydrate even the driest of skins and has skin softening properties.

It’s also suitable on people with sensitive skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema and rosacea.
The presence of trocopherol contained in vitamin E boosts cell production inducing healthy skin and hair. This oil is a much sought natural cure for various skin disorders, such as chicken pox and eczema.

2) Benefits Of Argan Moroccan Oil For Hair:

No more split ends: Split ends are an annoyance for people with long hair. Applying argan oil regularly on your hair cuts down the occurrences of split ends to a great extent. It penetrates into each shaft of hair, strengthening it from within. It ensures that the hair strands is healthier and grows longer and thicker. You can use it as hair massage. If you want greater benefits, then you can use argan oil shampoo and conditioner as additive.

Controls frizzy Hair: This oil provides the perfect solution for untameable frizzy hair. It moisturises frizzy hair in a non-greasy way and smoothers it down. Rub a few drops to your palm and smooth out the frizz.
– Imparts shine to your tresses: Hair subjected to lots of tangles and stretching oftentimes lose its original shine softness. Argan oil helps getting it back. You can do so by doing a weekly treatment for 60 minutes massage and then washing off. You would certainly be impressed.

Hair Damage Repair: If you have been using chemical products on your hair, then it is sure to blow away the hair health depleting its strength. Argan oil can actually help in strengthening the hair back from the follicle till the way to the tip. The damages get repaired, leaving hair strong and hydrated once again, rejuvenating its lost smoothness and elasticity.

Nature’s Anti-Dandruff Remedy: Dandruff can be thwarted off by massaging this oil into scalp which often gets the dandruff because of dryness. Use hot water and towel massage to ensure that the scalp gets hydrated. Repeat multiple times a week for dandruff-free hair.

Natural hair style setter: You should prefer the non-greasy and lightweight Moroccan argan oil in place of chemical styling agents. Applying few drops of argon oil before styling the hair through blow dryer or straightening ensures that hair is safe from the heat damages. It also establishes smooth finishing that lasts longer.

Deep Hair Conditioner: Apply few drops of argan oil and leave it for some period for deep conditioning. You can wash the excess oil with a mild shampoo for soft, radiant tresses.

Overnight hair therapy: Before going to sleep, massage generous amount of argan oil into your hair and scalp. Wrap up your hair and leave it for the night while you sleep. In the morning, wash your hair and you’ll have luminous, soft locks.

3) Prevents Premature Ageing: Due to alarming rise in pollution, sun’s rays cause harsher effect on our skin cells. As a result, the skin is flooded with free radicals. These free radicals degrade the moisture levels, leaving the skin to dry. This may set the stage for premature ageing. Vitamin E present in Moroccan oil diminish free radical damages and the saponins present in it enhance the moisture level, ensuring that the skin doesn’t lose its elasticity, firmness and radiance.

4) Keeps your lips beautiful: Keeping your lips smooth and luscious is now easy. Use a mixture of 3-4 tsps of argan oil with brown sugar and vanilla to exfoliate the dead skin cells off the lips revealing the tempting shine.

5) Protection from Acne: Argan oil is a perfect anti-inflammatory agent because of richness of vitamin E and various anti-oxidants. It effectively cures acne and razor bumps, eventually leaving no scars behind.

6) Scars Healing ability: It has innate scars healing properties. Massaging a little Moroccan oil regularly on the affected areas can bring about a lot of difference. The triterpenoids present in it are known to heal the tissue scars, also protecting the skin from developing infections.

7) Helps Maintaining good Fingernails: Shiny and pinky nails are indicators of good health. Argan oil helps to keep your nails lustrous and radiant. Using just as little as 1 tsp of oil on
nails regularly keeps their health in check. It’s antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities also help in fighting off nail and skin infections. Argan oil’s softening properties are ideal for brittle nails and also for cracked, hard skin on feet.

8) Use as shaving Cream: This oil is a natural shaving cream. Just use a few drops of argan oil on skin in order to clean hair smoothly and hassle-free. It can also be used as an aftershave keeping your skin hydrated and soft.

9) Face moisturizer: If you own argan oil, you are recommended to massage a few drops of pure argan oil directly onto your face and neck. This oil is not greasy and is considered dry, thus skin quickly absorbs it giving your face ravishing and freshness. You can also use it as a serum, just apply your night cream after the oil absorbs into the skin.

10) Body and bath oil: You can add some oil to your daily bath for long term benefits and by adding it to body lotion.

11) Environmental Damage Protection: Argan oil is an effective sunscreen lotion as it helps protecting the skin from harmful UV radiations because of high content of anti-oxidants.

12) Pregnancy: Stretch marks, sagging and puckered skin is a notable issue for pregnant women. Rubbing argan oil into breasts, stomach and thighs will reduce the possibility of getting unwanted stretch marks during pregnancy. It works by increasing elasticity of skin because of high content of Vitamin E. It’s safe to use on a baby and to help reduce stretch marks on a pregnant belly too.

13) Health Benefits of edible Moroccan Argan Oil:

Control Cholesterol Level: Argan oil is rich in plant sterols like schottenol and spinasterol, which are non-existent in other vegetable oil. These plant sterols inhibit the absorption of cholesterol by the intestine, thus reducing cholesterol and inflammation. It also enhances the body’s immunity. They also have phytosterols which are unsaturated fatty acids, and helps increase the level of LDL (good cholesterol) in the body.

Healthy Digestion: If you often suffer from indigestion, try using this oil. It promotes the concentration of enzyme pepsin in the gastric juice facilitating healthy digestion. It contains flavonoids, an anti-oxidant which reduces inflammation both internally and externally.

Alas! All This, In One Bottle. Moroccan Argan oil is undoubtedly rich treasure trove of various anti-microbial elements, antioxidants, and powerful nutrients. It is indeed a valuable gift of Mother Nature. Huge benefits obviously imply the reason behind it as one of the most sought after expensive oil because of its rare availability. Make sure you do not waste it if you have one in hand.

How To Choose The Right Argan Oil?

1) Check for Ingredients: Inclusion of additives could negatively affect Argan oil benefits. So, you must ensure that oil you purchased has zero additives and inclusions, even the preservatives.

2) Packaging: of Oil Bottle: It should be poured in dark glass bottles in its pure form, as exposure to light can hamper its inherent goodness. Also make sure that it should not be packed in plastic as it interacts negatively with plastic. As an added comfort, you can also look for the bottles that come with pipette droppers making it convenient to use.

3) Don’t compromise at The Cost: Manufacturing pure Argan oil is a difficult, labor intensive work, which means it does come at a high price. Beware of the advertisements where this oil is priced at a temptingly lower price. You might become the victim of adulteration and fraudulence.

4) The Aroma: This oil gives away a distinct nutty scent, which vanishes fast while coming into contact with hair or skin. You also need not buy odour-free oil as it may deprive you of various nutrients present. Do not purchase any artificially-fragranced oils.

5) The Texture: Although it is slightly thick but it is non-greasy and smooth. It is light in weight and gets easily absorbed by the skin.

6) Check if Oil is Cold Pressed: Cold pressed Argan oils should be the first preference while making a purchase because its nutritional value gets depleted at high temperatures.

7) Colour: Moroccan oil which is used for cosmetic purposes possesses a pale golden hue, while the one used for culinary purposes is deep golden in colour.

8) The Credentials: Check that the oil has necessary certifications and comes with a 100% pure or preferably ‘Made in Morocco’ tag.

9) Based on your Usage: Argan oil comes in two variants – cosmetic and culinary. The cosmetic one is processed from raw nuts to retain the benefits. While culinary one is made using roasted nuts. Do not interchange the type while buying or using.

How To Store Moroccan Argan Oil?

– To use it for a longer time, proper storage should be carefully done.
– Store in a dark, cool place, completely away from heat and light.
– Use a glass bottle or container for storing the oil as metal or plastic containers have the danger of negatively interact with the oil.